Urolithin A, B ndi Urolithin A 8-Methyl Ether
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Chiyambi cha Urolithins

Urolithins ndi metabolites yachiwiri ya ellagic acid yochokera ku ellagitannins. Mwa anthu ellagitannins amasinthidwa ndimatumbo a microflora kukhala ellagic acid omwe amasinthidwanso kukhala urolithins A, urolithin B, urolithin C ndi urolithin D m'matumbo akulu.

Ma urolithin precursors, ellagic acid ndi ellagitannins, mwachilengedwe amapezeka m'malo ena azakudya monga makangaza, ma guavas, tiyi, mapini, mtedza, ndi zipatso monga sitiroberi, rasipiberi wakuda ndi zipatso. Urolithins amapezeka m'madzi a m'magazi monga glucuronide ndi sulfate conjugates pamunsi mozama pafupifupi 0.2μM.

Urolithin A. (UA) ndi metabolite wodziwika bwino wa ellagitannins. Komabe, urolithin A sakudziwika kuti amachitika mwachilengedwe m'zakudya zilizonse.

Urolithin B (UB) ndi metabolite yochuluka yomwe imapangidwa m'matumbo kudzera pakusintha kwa ellagitannins. Urolithin B ndiye chinthu chomaliza pambuyo poti zina zonse za urolithin zimapangidwa. Urolithin B amapezeka mkodzo monga urolithin B glucuronide.

Urolithin A 8-Methyl Ether ndi mankhwala apakatikati pa kapangidwe ka Urolithin A. Ndi yofunika yachiwiri ya metabolite ya ellagitannin ndipo ili ndi antioxidant komanso anti-yotupa.

Mkukonzekera kwa kuchitako kwa urolithin A ndi B

Urolithin A amachititsa mitophagy

Mitophagy ndi mtundu umodzi wa autophagy womwe umathandiza kuthetsa mitochondrial yowonongeka chifukwa chogwira bwino ntchito. Autophagy imatanthawuza njira yomwe ma cytoplasmic omwe amawonongeka amayamba kusinthidwa pomwe mitophagy ndikuwonongeka ndikuyambiranso kwa mitochondria.

Pakukalamba kuchepa kwa magazi m'mimba ndi gawo limodzi lomwe limapangitsa kutsika kwa ntchito ya mitochondrial. Kupitilira apo, kupsinjika kwa oxidative kumatha kubweretsanso kuchepa kwam'mimba. Urolithin A. kukhala ndi mphamvu zothetsera kuwonongeka kwa mitochondria kudzera pakusankha kosakwanira.

Antioxidant katundu

Kupanikizika kwa oxidative kumachitika pakakhala kusamvana pakati pa zoyeserera zaulere ndi antioxidant m'thupi. Izi zopitilira muyeso zamagetsi nthawi zambiri zimagwirizanitsidwa ndi matenda ambiri a mtima monga matenda a mtima, shuga ndi khansa.

Urolithins A ndi B akuwonetsa zotsatira za antioxidant mwa kuthekera kwawo kuchepetsa ma radicals aulere makamaka makulidwe a intracellular reactive oxygen (ROS) komanso amalepheretsa lipid peroxidation m'mitundu ina yamaselo.

Komanso, ma urolithin amatha kuletsa michere ina yophatikiza, kuphatikizapo monoamine oxidase A ndi tyrosinase.

Anti-yotupa katundu

Kutupa ndi njira yachilengedwe yomwe matupi athu amalimbana ndi chilichonse chogwa monga matenda, kuvulala, ndi ma virus. Komabe, kutupa kosalekeza kumatha kuvulaza thupi chifukwa izi zimalumikizidwa ndi zovuta zingapo monga mphumu, mavuto amtima, komanso khansa. Kutupa kwakanthawi kumatha kuchitika chifukwa cha kutupa kosagwirizana, matenda kapena ngakhale zopitilira muyeso mthupi.

Urolithins A ndi B amawonetsa katundu wotsutsa-kufooka mwa kuletsa kupanga kwa nitric oxide. Amalepheretsa mapuloteni osakanikirana a nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) ndi mRNA omwe amachititsa kutupa.

Zokhudza anti-microbial

Tizilombo tating'onoting'ono kuphatikizapo mabakiteriya, bowa ndi ma virus timachitika mwachilengedwe komanso m'thupi la munthu. Komabe, ma virus ochepa otchedwa ma tizilombo toyambitsa matenda amatha kuyambitsa matenda opatsirana monga chimfine, chikuku ndi malungo.

Urolithin A ndi B amatha kuwonetsa zochita za antimicrobial poletsa chidwi cha quorum. Kuzindikira kwa Quorum ndi njira yolankhulirana ya mabakiteriya yomwe imathandizira mabakiteriya kudziwa ndikuwongolera njira zokhudzana ndi matenda monga virulence ndi motility.

Kuletsa mapuloteni glycation

Glycation amatanthauza kuphatikiza kwa shuga kopanda enzymatic. Ndizofunikira kwambiri pa matenda ashuga komanso mavuto ena komanso kukalamba.

Kutsekeka kwamapuloteni kwambiri ndi njira yachiwiri ya hyperglycemia kumathandizira kwambiri pamavuto okhudzana ndi mtima monga matenda a shuga komanso matenda a Alzheimer's.

Urolithin A ndi B ali ndi zinthu zotsutsana ndi glycative zomwe zimadalira mlingo womwe umayimira pawokha pantchito yawo ya antioxidant.

Urolithin A, B ndi Urolithin A 8-Methyl Ether

Urolithin A ndi B amapindulitsa

Urolithins ali ndi zotsatira zabwino zambiri zomwe zimapangidwa ndi umboni wofufuza wokhudzana ndi zotupa, anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant, ndi antimicrobial. Urolithin A maubwino ndizogwirizana kwambiri ndi maubwino wa urolithin B. Pansipa pali zabwino zina zomwe zimanenedwa kuchokera ku urolithins;

Urolithin A maubwino

(1) Itha kufalikira

Urolithin A amachititsa mitophagy mwa kusankha kuchotsa mitochondria yowonongeka. Izi zimathandizanso kubwezeretsanso mitochondria yogwira ntchito bwino. Mitochondria nthawi zambiri amawonongeka ndi ukalamba komanso chifukwa cha kupsinjika. Kuchotsa mitochondria yowonongeka kumathandizira kukulitsa moyo.

Pakufufuza kwa mphutsi, urolithin A supplement omwe amaperekedwa pa 50 µM kuchokera pagawo la dzira mpaka imfa adapezeka kuti awonjezera nthawi yawo yamoyo ndi 45.4%.

Kafukufuku wina yemwe adachitika mu 2019 pogwiritsa ntchito masensa a menoscent, urolithin Chowonjezera adapezeka kuti aziwonetsa kuthekera kolimbana ndi ukalamba. Unatha kuwonjezera mtundu wa 1 collagen expression ndikuchepetsanso kufotokoza kwa matrix metalloproteinase 1.

Kafukufuku wocheperako waumunthu akuwonetsanso kuti UA idatha kukonza magwiridwe antchito a chitetezo cham'mimba komanso mafupa mwa okalamba popatsidwa pakamwa pa 500-1000mg kwa masabata anayi.

(2) Thandizani kupewa khansa ya prostate

Ma urolithin ndi wotsogolera wawo, ellagitannins, ali ndi anti-cancer. Amatha kuletsa kuchuluka kwa khansa kudzera mu cell kuzungulira ndikumapangitsa apoptosis. Apoptosis amatanthauza kufa kwa khungu komwe thupi limachotsa maselo omwe angakhale ndi khansa komanso maselo ena omwe ali ndi kachilomboka.

Pakufufuza kwa mbewa zophatikizidwa ndi maselo a khansa ya anthu, ellagitannins metabolites (Urolithin A) adapezeka kuti akuletsa kukula kwa khansa ya Prostate. Kafukufukuyu adanenanso kuti kuchuluka kwa metabolites mu prostate, colon ndi matumbo zimakhala.

(3) Kupititsa patsogolo kwanzeru

Urolithin A amatha kuteteza ma neurons kuimfa ndipo amathanso kuyambitsa neurogeneis kudzera mwa anti-yotupa ma sign.

Pakufufuza kwa mbewa zokhala ndi vuto losaiwalika, urolithin A adapezeka kuti amathandizira kuwonongeka kwazidziwitso ndikuteteza ma neuron ku apoptosis. Izi zikusonyeza kuti UA ingagwiritsidwe ntchito pochiza matenda a Alzheimer's (AD).

(4) Kuthana ndi kunenepa kwambiri

Kafukufuku akuwonetsa kuti ellagitannins amatha kuletsa kuchuluka kwa lipid komanso ma adipogenic zolembera monga mapuloteni oyambira poyambira kukula 2 komanso mapuloteni olimbikitsira omanga ma cell.

Urolithin A wapezeka makamaka kuti athetse insulin sensitivity motero amalepheretsa kukula kwa kunenepa kwambiri.

Pakufufuza kwa mbewa zokhala ndi kunenepa kwambiri, urolithin A supplementation adapezeka kuti apewe kunenepa kwambiri komanso kuwonongeka kwa metabolic mu mbewa. Kafukufukuyu adawonetsa kuti chithandizo cha AU chikuwonjezera mphamvu zamagetsi motero kutsika kwambiri kwa thupi.

Urolithin B amapindula

Urolithin B zowonjezera amakhalanso ndi maubwino angapo azaumoyo ndipo ambiri omwe ali ofanana ndi urolithin A maubwino.

(1) Ntchito yoletsa khansa

Mphamvu yotsutsa-yotupa ya urolithin B imapangitsa kukhala woyenera kumenya khansa. Ofufuza ena adanenanso kuti izi zingatheke mu ma fibroblasts, microphages ndi maselo a endothelial.

Kafukufuku wanena kuti UB amaletsa khansa yamtundu wosiyanasiyana monga kansa ya prostate, colon ndi chikhodzodzo.

Kafukufuku wokhudzana ndi maselo a khansa ya m'matumbo a anthu, ma ellagitannins, ellagic acid ndi urolithins A ndi B adayesedwa kuti athe kulimbana ndi khansa. Adanenanso kuti mankhwalawa adathandizira kuletsa kukula kwa maselo a khansa. Analepheretsa maselo a khansa kuchulukana kudzera mwa kuwazungulira kwa maselo am'magawo osiyanasiyana komanso polimbikitsa kupopa.

(2) Ingathandize kulimbana ndi oxidative nkhawa

Urolithin B ali ndi ma antioxidant abwino kwambiri mwa kuchepetsa mitundu ya okosijeni ya okosijeni ndi lipid peroxidation m'mitundu ina yamaselo. Mitundu yambiri ya ROS imalumikizidwa ndi zovuta zambiri monga matenda a Alzheimer's.

Pakufufuza komwe kumachitika ndi ma cell a neuronal omwe ali ndi nkhawa ya oxidative, urolithin B komanso urolithin A adapezeka kuti ateteza maselo ku oxidation motero adakulitsa kupulumuka.

(3) Urolithin B pakukulitsa kukumbukira

Urolithin b wanenedwa kuti akukonzanso magazi otchinga magazi. Izi zimathandizira magwiridwe antchito yanzeru.

Kafukufuku akuwonetsa kuti urolithin B akhoza kupititsa patsogolo kukumbukira mwa kusintha magwiridwe anthawi zonse.

(4) Zimalepheretsa kuchepa kwa minofu

Kuchepetsa minofu kumatha kuchitika chifukwa cha zifukwa zosiyanasiyana monga kusokonezeka, ukalamba ndi kuchepa kwa mapuloteni muzakudya. Njira zingapo zopewa, kuchepetsa kapena kupewa kuteteza minofu kuphatikiza, masewera olimbitsa thupi, mankhwala osokoneza bongo komanso ma amino acid komanso polyphenols angagwiritsidwe ntchito.

Urolithins amatha kutchulidwa kuti ma polyphenols ndipo amatenga nawo gawo popewa kuchepa kwa minofu poyambitsa kuphatikiza minofu ya protein komanso kuchepetsa kuchepa.

Pakufufuza ndi mbewa, Urolithin B zowonjezera zomwe zimaperekedwa kwa nthawi yayitali zimapezeka kuti zimalimbikitsa minofu yawo kukulira momwe minofu imawonedwa ikukulira.

(5) Urolithin B amalimbana ndi kutupa

Urolithin B ali ndi katundu wotsutsa-kutupa pochepetsa zilembo zambiri zotupa.

Pakufufuza makoswe okhala ndi impso fibrosis, urolithin B adapezeka kuti akondweretsa kuvulala kwa impso. Zinawonjezera ntchito ya aimpso, ma morphology a impso komanso kuchepetsa chikhomo cha impso. Izi zikuwonetsa kuti UB anali wokhoza kuchepetsa kutupa.

(6) Phindu la Synergistic la urolithin A ndi B

Zotsatira za Synergistic zanenedwanso pakuphatikizana kwa urolithin A ndi B pogwira ntchito ndi kuthekera. Kafukufukuyu adanena kuti kuphatikiza kumeneku kungagwiritsidwe ntchito pochiza kapena kupewa matenda obwera chifukwa cha matenda a dementia monga nkhawa kapena matenda a Alzheimer's.

Mapindu ena omwe amaphatikizidwa ndi urolithins ndi;

  • neuroprotection
  • Ameliorates kagayidwe kachakudya matenda

Magulu a chakudya a Urolithin A ndi B

Ma urolithin sakudziwika kuti amapezeka mwachilengedwe muzinthu zilizonse zamagulu azakudya. Ndiwopezeka mukusinthidwa kwa ma ellagic acids omwe amachokera ku ellagitannins. Ellagitannins amasinthidwa kukhala ma ellagic acids ndi gut micobiota ndipo ellagic acid imasinthidwanso kukhala metabolites (urolithins) m'matumbo akulu.

Ellagitannins amapezeka mwachilengedwe ku zakudya monga makangaza, zipatso kuphatikiza sitiroberi, rasipiberi, mtambo ndi mabulosi akuda, mphesa za muscadine, ma amondi, ma guavas, tiyi, ndi mtedza monga walnuts ndi ma chestnuts komanso zakumwa zopangidwa ndi oak zakale mbiya za oak.

Chifukwa chake titha kunena kuti urolithin A zakudya ndi zakudya za urolithin B ndizakudya zokhala ndi ellagitannin. Ndikofunikira kudziwa kuti ellagitannin bioavailability ndi yochepa kwambiri pomwe ma metabolites ake achiwiri (urolithins) amapezeka mosavuta.

Ma urolithins excretion ndi kapangidwe kake amasiyanasiyana kwambiri pakati pa anthu kuyambira kutembenuka kwa ellagitannins amadalira micobiota m'matumbo. Pali mabakiteriya enieni omwe amatengera kutembenuka kumeneku ndipo amasiyanasiyana pakati pa anthu pomwe ena amakhala ndi ma microbiota apamwamba, otsika kapena osapezeka. Zomwe zimapangidwira chakudya zimasiyananso pamlingo wawo wa ellagitannins. Chifukwa chake maubwino a ellagitannins amasiyanasiyana kuchokera pamunthu wina ndi mnzake.

Urolithin A, B ndi Urolithin A 8-Methyl Ether

Urolithin A ndi B zowonjezera

Urolithin A zowonjezera komanso Urolithin B zowonjezera zimapezeka mosavuta pamsika ngati othandizira zakudya a ellagitannin. Urolithin A zowonjezera zowonjezera zimapezekanso mosavuta. Makamaka zowonjezera makangaza zimagulitsidwa kwambiri ndikugwiritsa ntchito bwino. Zowonjezera izi zimapangidwa kuchokera ku zipatso kapena mtedza ndikupanga mawonekedwe amadzimadzi kapena ufa.

Chifukwa cha kusiyanasiyana kwa kuchuluka kwa zakudya za ellagitannins mu zakudya zosiyanasiyana, makasitomala a urolithin amagula ndikuganizira gwero la chakudya. Zomwezi zimagwiranso ntchito pokonzekera urolithin B ufa kapena madzi othandizira.

Kafukufuku wowerengeka wa anthu omwe amachitika ndi urolithin A ufa kapena B sanafotokozere zoyipa zilizonse kuchokera pakukhazikitsa izi.

Kumene mungagule urolithin A ndi B

Mukaganizira kugwiritsa ntchito urolithin A kugula kapena urolithin B muigule mosamala powerenga mosamala zilembo kuti mumenye zambiri. Pezani magwero azakudya omwe agwiritsidwa ntchito ndi omwe akufuna kuti adzagwiritse ntchito.

Urolithin A supplement awonedwa kuti ndi otetezeka ndi Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Komabe, gwero la zowonjezera kuchokera kwa othandizira ovomerezeka.

Opanga ambiri akuwonetsa momwe zowonjezera ziyenera kugwiritsidwira ntchito. Koma kawirikawiri zowonjezera za urolithin zakhala zikugwiritsidwa ntchito muzakudya zina monga mkaka wamkaka.

Ma Urolithin othandizira ngati zowonjezera zina amathanso kuwira pa intaneti. Komabe, khalani atcheru kwambiri kuti mupeze zabwino kuchokera kuzowonjezerazi.

Nthawi zonse mutsatire malangizo aopanga zotsatira zabwino kuchokera pazowonjezera za urolithin.

Zothandizira
  1. Ishimoto, Hidekazu; Shibata, Mari; Myojin, Yuki; Ito, Hideyuki; Sugimoto, Yukio; Tai, Akihiro; Hatano, Tsutomu (2011). "Mu vivo odana ndi yotupa komanso antioxidant katundu wa ellagitannin metabolite urolithin A" (PDF). Zolemba ndi Zamankhwala a Kememia Amagetsi. 21 (19): 5901-5904. doi: 1016 / j.bmcl.2011.07.086. PMID 21843938.
  2. Espín, Juan Carlos; Larrosa, Mar; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco (2013). "Tizilombo Chilengedwe Cha Urolithins, Gut Microbial Ellagic Acid-Derered Metabolites: Umboni Mpaka Pano". Mankhwala Othandizira Omwe Amawathandiza. 2013: 270418. doi: 1155/2013/270418. ISSN1741-427X. PMC 3679724. PMID 23781257.
  3. Ryu, Dongryeol; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Andreux, Pénélope A; Katsyuba, Elena; Moullan, Norman; Nicolet-dit-Félix, Amandine A; Williams, Evan G; Jha, Pooja; Sasso, Giuseppe Lo (2016). "Urolithin A amathandizira kutsitsa ndikukula nthawi yayitali mu C. elegans ndikuwonjezera ntchito ya minofu m'makoko". Nature Medicine. 22 (8): 879-888. doi: 1038 / nm.4132. PMID 27400265.
  4. Seeram, NP, Aronson, WJ, Zhang, Y., Henning, SM, Moro, A., Lee, R.,… Heber, D. (2007). Pomegranate Ellagitannin-Derives Metabolites Inhibit Costate Cancer Kukula Kwawo Kwambiri Ndikulowera ku Mouse Prostate Gland. Zolemba pa Chemistry ndi Chakudya Chemistry, 55 (19), 7732-7737.doi: 10.1021 / jf071303g.
  5. Lee, G., Park, J.-S., Lee, E-J., Ahn, J.-H., & Kim, H.S. (2018). Anti-yotupa ndi antioxidant njira urolithin B mu adamulowetsa microglia. Phytomedicine. doi: 10.1016 / j.phymed.2018.06.032.
  6. Urolithin A.,Urolithin B,Urolithin A 8-Methyl Ether

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